Mark Holderman and Edward Henderson of NASA JSC listed six technology applications in their latest presentation to the” Future in Space Operations” group. The six technologies include: satellite servicing, ISRU on the Moon, a SBSP demo, solar electric propulsion vehicle, propellant depots, and the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV).The Nautilus-X (Non-Atmospheric Universal Transport Intended for Lengthy United States eXploration) would be assembled from expandable structures, such as the inflatable living quarters proposed by Bigelow Aerospace. It would also contain a ring centrifuge to provide partial gravity, and radiation-mitigation systems that may also include tanks of water or liquid hydrogen slush, according to an article published on HobbySpace’s website. Other views of the ISS centrifuge: (PhysOrg.com) — NASA is currently examining several key technologies that can advance space exploration. Dubbed Nautilus-X this tubular spacecraft can be used as a reusable vehicle for lunar and deep-space missions, holding a crew of six with enough supplies for a two-year voyage. A ring centrifuge would provide partial gravity for crew’s health. Explore further HobbySpace also mentioned that the centrifuge includes both inflatable and deployed structures and may utilize Hoberman-Sphere expandable structures. The rotational hardware would be derived from Hughes 376 spin-stabilized ComSats. NASA’s dream spacecraft would be assembled from expandable structures and hold a crew of 6 with enough supplies for a 2 year mission. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Citation: NASA’s Nautilus-X: Reusable deep manned spacecraft (2011, February 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-02-nasa-nautilus-x-reusable-deep-spacecraft.html New NASA ‘Tool Set’ Will Simplify Engineers’ Efforts to Better Analyze Space Travel Concepts More information: via HobbySpace According to Edward Henderson of NASA’s Johnson Space Center the Nautilus-X will be designed as a multi-mission space exploration vehicle and could incorporate mission-specific propulsion units. In theory the engines and fuel can be swapped out depending on the mission. This all-purpose system would make it much simpler than using heavy-lift rockets for specific missions to the moon or other planets.It’s estimated that construction would take at least five years and require two or three rocket launches and cost about $3.7 billion. By using existing technologies, like Bigelow’s modules and the adaptability of a multi-purpose crew transporter, could mean a system like Nautilus can play a very important role in NASA’s future. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The goal is to deliver the centrifuge to the International Space Station (ISS), using a single Delta-IV/Atlas-V launch, where it will be tested.
Month: August 2019
More information: Quasi-cylindrical wave contribution in experiments on extraordinary optical transmission, Nature, 492, 411–414 (20 December 2012) doi:10.1038/nature11669AbstractA metal film perforated by a regular array of subwavelength holes shows unexpectedly large transmission at particular wavelengths, a phenomenon known as the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) of metal hole arrays. EOT was first attributed to surface plasmon polaritons, stimulating a renewed interest in plasmonics and metallic surfaces with subwavelength features. Experiments soon revealed that the field diffracted at a hole or slit is not a surface plasmon polariton mode alone. Further theoretical analysis predicted that the extra contribution, from quasi-cylindrical waves, also affects EOT. Here we report the experimental demonstration of the relative importance of surface plasmon polaritons and quasi-cylindrical waves in EOT by considering hole arrays of different hole densities. From the measured transmission spectra, we determine microscopic scattering parameters which allow us to show that quasi-cylindrical waves affect EOT only for high densities, when the hole spacing is roughly one wavelength. Apart from providing a deeper understanding of EOT, the determination of microscopic scattering parameters from the measurement of macroscopic optical properties paves the way to novel design strategies. Explore further Photon-plasmon coupling: Dye guides light through perforated metal foil Citation: New experiment helps explain extraordinary optical transmission (2012, December 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-12-extraordinary-optical-transmission.html (Phys.org)—An international team of researchers working in the Netherlands has conducted an experiment that sheds new light on the phenomenon known as Extraordinary Optical Transmission (EOP) – where light is able to shine through a metal with holes in it that are smaller than the light waves themselves. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they adjusted the distance between the holes while keeping the wavelength of light constant and in so doing discovered the degree to which two different waveforms impact the metal’s transmission properties. © 2012 Phys.org Sample design. Credit: Nature, 492, 411–414 (20 December 2012) doi:10.1038/nature11669 EOP occurs when researchers drill very small holes in a very thin metal plate and then shine a light on it. Despite the fact that the holes should be too small to allow light to pass through, they appear to do so anyway. Scientists attributed this phenomenon to plasmonics – a strong paring between the incident light field and the motion of free electrons along the surface of the metal. What happens, they say, is that light striking free electrons on the surface of the metal cause a stream of electron motion that moves along the surface. When a hole is encountered, the plasmons move through the hole causing glowing to occur on the other side, which is perceived as the original light.Subsequent research showed however, that plasmonics alone could not explain the phenomenon. Drilling a single hole with the same volume as the total of all the little ones resulted in less light being emitted on the other side, for example; making the metal thinner did the same (it was later discovered that the thinner metal was not actually allowing more light through, but instead was allowing electrons on the opposite of the metal to be excited by the photons directly). This led to the idea that another waveform was involved – quasi-cylindrical waves (QCW) – which is where electrons behave differently near the holes, because they are there. What was not well understood however, was the degree to which each impacted the overall properties of EOP.To find out, the researchers drilled holes in several identical metal plates. The holes were spaced the same vertically but varied by very small amounts horizontally. By flashing light of the same wavelength on each of the plates and noting how much light passed through the holes compared to the other plates, the researchers were able to measure the degree to which each type of waveform was impacting the amount of light that was emitted out the other side.Besides increasing understanding of how EOP works in general, this new work will likely result in improvements in the development of devices that rely on its unique properties. Journal information: Nature This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: Jacob N. Oppenheim and Marcelo O. Magnasco. “Human Time-Frequency Acuity Beats the Fourier Uncertainty Principle.” PRL 110, 044301 (2013). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.044301 Play A Gaussian note, characterized by a rise and fall that follows a bell curve shape PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen (Phys.org)—For the first time, physicists have found that humans can discriminate a sound’s frequency (related to a note’s pitch) and timing (whether a note comes before or after another note) more than 10 times better than the limit imposed by the Fourier uncertainty principle. Not surprisingly, some of the subjects with the best listening precision were musicians, but even non-musicians could exceed the uncertainty limit. The results rule out the majority of auditory processing brain algorithms that have been proposed, since only a few models can match this impressive human performance. Journal information: Physical Review Letters But as it turns out, the subjects could discriminate both types of sounds with equally impressive performance. While some subjects excelled at discriminating frequency, most did much better at discriminating timing. The top score, achieved by a professional musician, violated the uncertainty principle by a factor of about 13, due to equally high precision in frequency acuity and timing acuity. The score with the top timing acuity (3 milliseconds) was achieved by an electronic musician who works in precision sound editing. The researchers tested the subjects with two different types of sounds: Gaussian, characterized by a rise and fall that follows a bell curve shape; and note-like, characterized by a rapid rise and a slow exponential decay. According to the uncertainty principle, note-like sounds are more difficult to measure with high precision than Gaussian sounds. The researchers, Jacob Oppenheim and Marcelo Magnasco at Rockefeller University in New York, have published their study on the first direct test of the Fourier uncertainty principle in human hearing in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters.The Fourier uncertainty principle states that a time-frequency tradeoff exists for sound signals, so that the shorter the duration of a sound, the larger the spread of different types of frequencies is required to represent the sound. Conversely, sounds with tight clusters of frequencies must have longer durations. The uncertainty principle limits the precision of the simultaneous measurement of the duration and frequency of a sound.To investigate human hearing in this context, the researchers turned to psychophysics, an area of study that uses various techniques to reveal how physical stimuli affect human sensation. Using physics, these techniques can establish tight bounds on the performance of the senses.An ear for precisionTo test how precisely humans can simultaneously measure the duration and frequency of a sound, the researchers asked 12 subjects to perform a series of listening tasks leading up to a final task. In the final task, the subjects were asked to discriminate simultaneously whether a test note was higher or lower in frequency than a leading note that was played before it, and whether the test note appeared before or after a third note, which was discernible due to its much higher frequency. When a subject correctly discriminated the frequency and timing of a note twice in a row, the difficulty level would increase so that both the difference in frequency between the notes and the time between the notes decreased. When a subject responded incorrectly, the variance would increase to make the task easier. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Explore further PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Play An example of the simultaneous time-frequency discrimination task for note-like notes Copyright 2013 Phys.org All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of Phys.org. Rewired visual input to sound-processing part of the brain leads to compromised hearing Play An example of the simultaneous time-frequency discrimination task for reversed note-like notes. All samples: Credit: Oppenheim and Magnasco The researchers think that this superior human listening ability is partly due to the spiral structure and nonlinearities in the cochlea. Previously, scientists have proven that linear systems cannot exceed the time-frequency uncertainty limit. Although most nonlinear systems do not perform any better, any system that exceeds the uncertainty limit must be nonlinear. For this reason, the nonlinearities in the cochlea are likely integral to the precision of human auditory processing. Since researchers have known for a long time about the cochlea’s nonlinearities, the current results are not quite as surprising as they would otherwise be.”It is and it is not [surprising],” Magnasco told Phys.org. “We were surprised, yet we expected this to happen. The thing is, mathematically the possibility existed all along. There’s a theorem that asserts uncertainty is only obeyed by linear operators (like the linear operators of quantum mechanics). Now there’s five decades of careful documentation of just how nastily nonlinear the cochlea is, but it is not evident how any of the cochlea’s nonlinearities contributes to enhancing time-frequency acuity. We now know our results imply that some of those nonlinearities have the purpose of sharpening acuity beyond the naïve linear limits.”We were still extremely surprised by how well our subjects did, and particularly surprised by the fact that the biggest gains appear to have been, by and large, in timing. You see, physicists tend to think hearing is spectrum. But spectrum is time-independent, and hearing is about rapid transients. We were just told, by the data, that our brains care a great deal about timing.” Play A famous excerpt from Casablanca with the characters Ilsa and Sam. Play An example of the simultaneous time-frequency discrimination task for Gaussian notes PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Play A reverse note-like note, characterized by a slow exponential rise and a rapid decay Play In a “surrogated” version, an identical copy of the spectrum is retained, but all phase information is destroyed, destroying all the timing information and rendering the time series statistically stationary. Play A note-like note, characterized by a rapid rise and a slow exponential decay Each dot represents a subject’s performance on Task 5 (simultaneously measuring the duration and frequency of a sound), with temporal acuity on the x-axis and frequency acuity on the y-axis. All dots within the black rectangle beat the Fourier uncertainty principle. Credit: Oppenheim and Magnasco ©2013 American Physical Society (a) In task 5, subjects are asked to discriminate simultaneously whether the test note (red) is higher or lower in frequency than the leading note (green), and whether the test note appears before or after the high note (blue). (b) Tasks 1 through 4 lead up to task 5: task 1 is frequency only, task 2 is timing only, task 3 is frequency only but with the high note (blue) as a distractor, and task 4 is timing only, but with the leading (green) note as a distractor. Credit: Oppenheim and Magnasco ©2013 American Physical Society Play In a “whitened” version, the spectrum is destroyed, but all phases are preserved, creating a time series which is spectrally perfectly white and statistically uncorrelated. The whitened version sounds like a bad-quality and noisier copy of the original, but everything is clearly recognizable. All samples: Credit: Oppenheim and Magnasco New sound modelsThe results have implications for how we understand the way that the brain processes sound, a question that has interested scientists for a long time. In the early 1970s, scientists found hints that human hearing could violate the uncertainty principle, but the scientific understanding and technical capabilities were not advanced enough to enable a thorough investigation. As a result, most of today’s sound analysis models are based on old theories that may now be revisited in order to capture the precision of human hearing.”In seminars, I like demonstrating how much information is conveyed in sound by playing the sound from the scene in Casablanca where Ilsa pleads, “Play it once, Sam,” Sam feigns ignorance, Ilsa insists,” Magnasco said. “You can recognize the text being spoken, but you can also recognize the volume of the utterance, the emotional stance of both speakers, the identity of the speakers including the speaker’s accent (Ingrid’s faint Swedish, though her character is Norwegian, which I am told Norwegians can distinguish; Sam’s AAVE [African American Vernacular English]), the distance to the speaker (Ilsa whispers but she’s closer, Sam loudly feigns ignorance but he’s in the back), the position of the speaker (in your house you know when someone’s calling you from another room, in which room they are!), the orientation of the speaker (looking at you or away from you), an impression of the room (large, small, carpeted).”The issue is that many fields, both basic and commercial, in sound analysis try to reconstruct only one of these, and for that they may use crude models of early hearing that transmit enough information for their purposes. But the problem is that when your analysis is a pipeline, whatever information is lost on a given stage can never be recovered later. So if you try to do very fancy analysis of, let’s say, vocal inflections of a lyric soprano, you just cannot do it with cruder models.”By ruling out many of the simpler models of auditory processing, the new results may help guide researchers to identify the true mechanism that underlies human auditory hyperacuity. Understanding this mechanism could have wide-ranging applications in areas such as speech recognition; sound analysis and processing; and radar, sonar, and radio astronomy.”You could use fancier methods in radar or sonar to try to analyze details beyond uncertainty, since you control the pinging waveform; in fact, bats do,” Magnasco said.Building on the current results, the researchers are now investigating how human hearing is more finely tuned toward natural sounds, and also studying the temporal factor in hearing.”Such increases in performance cannot occur in general without some assumptions,” Magnasco said. “For instance, if you’re testing accuracy vs. resolution, you need to assume all signals are well separated. We have indications that the hearing system is highly attuned to the sounds you actually hear in nature, as opposed to abstract time-series; this comes under the rubric of ‘ecological theories of perception’ in which you try to understand the space of natural objects being analyzed in an ecologically relevant setting, and has been hugely successful in vision. Many sounds in nature are produced by an abrupt transfer of energy followed by slow, damped decay, and hence have broken time-reversal symmetry. We just tested that subjects do much better in discriminating timing and frequency in the forward version than in the time-reversed version (manuscript submitted). Therefore the nervous system uses specific information on the physics of sound production to extract information from the sensory stream.”We are also studying with these same methods the notion of simultaneity of sounds. If we’re listening to a flute-piano piece, we will have a distinct perception if the flute ‘arrives late’ into a phrase and lags the piano, even though flute and piano produce extended sounds, much longer than the accuracy with which we perceive their alignment. In general, for many sounds we have a clear idea of one single ‘time’ associated to the sound, many times, in our minds, having to do with what action we would take to generate the sound ourselves (strike, blow, etc).” Citation: Human hearing beats the Fourier uncertainty principle (2013, February 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-02-human-fourier-uncertainty-principle.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Material inspired by nature could turn water into fuel More information: Jianfeng Huang et al. Harnessing structural darkness in the visible and infrared wavelengths for a new source of light, Nature Nanotechnology (2015). DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2015.228AbstractEngineering broadband light absorbers is crucial to many applications, including energy-harvesting devices and optical interconnects. The performances of an ideal absorber are that of a black body, a dark material that absorbs radiation at all angles and polarizations. Despite advances in micrometre-thick films, the absorbers available to date are still far from an ideal black body. Here, we describe a disordered nanostructured material that shows an almost ideal black-body absorption of 98–99% between 400 and 1,400 nm that is insensitive to the angle and polarization of the incident light. The material comprises nanoparticles composed of a nanorod with a nanosphere of 30 nm diameter attached. When diluted into liquids, a small concentration of nanoparticles absorbs on average 26% more than carbon nanotubes, the darkest material available to date. By pumping a dye optical amplifier with nanosecond pulses of ∼100 mW power, we harness the structural darkness of the material and create a new type of light source, which generates monochromatic emission (∼5 nm wide) without the need for any resonance. This is achieved through the dynamics of light condensation in which all absorbed electromagnetic energy spontaneously generates single-colour energy pulses. As the researches also note, it is likely impossible to create the perfect black material that absorbs all of the energy that strikes it, and then emits it without any loss of energy. Still, scientists would like to come closer because it is believed that such materials could help in creating better or more efficient devices, such as solar collectors. In this new effort, the team bested the blackness of previous materials using carbon nanotubes by emulating what they found when studying the all-white cyphochilus beetle. The result was a an extremely tiny nanoparticle rod resting on an equally tiny nanoparticle sphere (30 nm diameter), which was able to absorb approximately 98 to 99 percent of the light in the spectrum between 400 and 1,400 nm, which meant that it is able to absorb approximately 26 percent more light than any other known material—and it does so from all angles and polarizations.The researchers noted that the scales on the cyphochilus beetle—a photonic crystal structure—caused the beetle’s shell to reflect light very efficiently. They took that idea and turned it on its head by inverting the structure and used the idea of chaotic energy harvesting to create the extremely black material—the surface of the structure is disordered, which creates a pattern of random pits, each consisting of infinitely long metallic waveguides. As a bonus, the material can be easily created and applied and used both in and out of liquids. Also, by firing a laser at it, they created a new type of light source that generated monochromatic emissions without the necessity of resonance.The team notes that devices using such an application might be used for desalination projects, and, of course, in solar energy collecting systems, and perhaps in optical interconnects. They also suggest the material might even lead to using a wholly new approach in the design of such devices. Explore further © 2015 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Nature Nanotechnology (Phys.org)—A team of researchers at King Abdulla University of Science and Technology in Saudi Arabia has made the blackest material ever created by human beings. As they note in their paper published in Nature Nanotechnology, the idea for the material came from the all-white cyphochilus beetle. Optical black body, the fabrication of which occurs via seeded growth of Au nanospheres from Au nanorods. a, Low-magnification TEM image of a realized sample. b, TEM image of a single nanostructure. c, HRTEM image near the kissing point between the nanosphere and the nanorod. Credit: (c) 2015 Nature Nanotechnology (2015) doi:10.1038/nnano.2015.228 Citation: Researchers create blackest material ever made (2015, October 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-10-blackest-material.html
(A) “Willow tree” pattern of different C60 isomers, with the lower points of each vertical bar representing the calculated formation enthalpy relative to Ih-C60, and bar heights representing the calculated barrier to transformation. This shows that Ih-C60 is significantly more stable than other isomers and lies at the center of an “energetic funnel.” Adapted from ref. 7, with permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd.: Nature, copyright 1998. (B) Calculated formation enthalpies of B40, showing the D2d cage structure is significantly more stable than alternative isomers. Reproduced from ref. 12, with permission from Macmillan Publishers: Nature Chemistry, copyright 2014. Credit: (c) 2015 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1520402112 (Phys.org)—A group of researchers from France, the U.K. and Florida proposes criteria to determine whether an allotrope is experimentally feasible. They use theoretical carbon allotropes, penta-graphene and Haeckelites, as examples and demonstrate why penta-graphene, contrary to recent research, is not experimentally practical while Haeckelites could be isolated in the presence of charge transfer ions. Their study appears in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. Christopher P. Ewels, Xavier Rocquefelte, Harold W. Kroto, Mark J. Rayson, Patrick R. Briddon, and Malcolm I. Heggie’s work responds to Zhang, et al.’s February 2015 article in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reporting that penta-graphene is a new allotrope of carbon based on calculations that confirm its dynamical, thermal, and mechanical stability. Ewels, et al. disagree that this is an experimentally possible allotrope and believe that, while penta-graphene may exhibit properties that place it within a local energy minimum, it will tend toward spontaneous formation of graphene.Graphene is made of a network of hexagonal carbon rings, characterized by carbon atoms that are sp2 hybridized. Fullerenes, C60, are a network of hexagonal and pentagonal carbons and are a mixture of sp2 and sp3 hybridized carbons. Zhang, et al. conducted molecular studies to demonstrate that carbon should also be able to form a network of pentagonal carbon rings in the form of Cairo pentagonal tiling. This structure consists of out-of-plane distorted ethylene units connected via sp3carbon linkers.However, Ewels, et al. show that while Cairo pentagonal tiling is geometrically enticing, it is not experimentally feasible to form a carbon allotrope due to several criteria that are based largely on the potential energy landscape of possible carbon allotropes. They summarize their criteria as: Stable allotropes must reside in a potential energy minimum; surrounding “wells” must be higher in energy such that a kind of “funneling” toward an energy minimum can occur; and theoretical carbon allotropes must have some kind of energy barrier to keep them from readily converting into a more stable structure. Penta-graphene, while it may sit in a relative energy minimum, is a high-energy structure. It is significantly less stable than graphene, amorphous carbon, most nanotubes, and C60.First, rather than being the center of a “funnel” in an energy landscape of isomers, penta-graphene is part of the “funnel” that leads to graphene as the most stable structure. Their studies showed that transformation from penta-graphene to graphene via bond rotations is thermodynamically favored at each step. Importantly, their studies of the energy landscapes for crystalline carbon allotropes predict these structures will “funnel” toward fully sp2 or sp3 hybridized carbons. Secondly, penta-graphene is not kinetically or chemically stable. Upon heating, notably in the presence of structural defects, penta-graphene does not maintain its structure for an appreciable timeframe. And, theoretical studies with O2 indicate that penta-graphene would likely undergo exothermic spontaneous oxidation upon exposure to air.Ewels, et al. then subjected another theoretical carbon structure, called Haeckelites, to their model. These carbon allotropes were proposed fifteen years ago, and while much research has been done on Haeckelites, they have never been experimentally isolated. They were proposed as a type of graphite-like planar sp2-carbon structure made predominantly of pentagonal and heptagonal carbons. Using their criteria for determining feasible carbon allotropes, Ewels, et al. found that three theoretical Haeckelite structures that would be less stable than graphene become more stable when doped with a metal cation. This is based on experimentally isolated structural analogs of metal borocarbides, and indicates that Haeckelites containing a charge transfer ion are experimentally feasible. This theoretical work calls into question some conclusions on whether penta-graphene is a viable candidate as a stable carbon allotrope and proposes criteria that could be generally applied to evaluate future isomeric structures. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Penta-graphene, a new structural variant of carbon, discovered More information: Christopher P. Ewels et al. Predicting experimentally stable allotropes: Instability of penta-graphene, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2015). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1520402112AbstractIn recent years, a plethora of theoretical carbon allotropes have been proposed, none of which has been experimentally isolated. We discuss here criteria that should be met for a new phase to be potentially experimentally viable. We take as examples Haeckelites, 2D networks of sp2-carbon–containing pentagons and heptagons, and “penta-graphene,” consisting of a layer of pentagons constructed from a mixture of sp2- and sp3-coordinated carbon atoms. In 2D projection appearing as the “Cairo pattern,” penta-graphene is elegant and aesthetically pleasing. However, we dispute the author’s claims of its potential stability and experimental relevance. Explore further , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , Nature Chemistry © 2016 Phys.org Citation: Criteria to predict experimentally stable allotropes (2016, January 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-01-criteria-experimentally-stable-allotropes.html Journal information: Nature
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2016 Phys.org A team of archeologists has found what may be the remains of a previously unknown Viking settlement on a south west shore of the Island of Newfoundland. If the remains can be confirmed, the site would make it just the second ever discovered that has given proof of Vikings inhabiting parts of North America. The team has been videotaping their work and a documentary of their efforts will be presented this month on PBS. Explore further The “Lofotr” viking ship and the smaller “femkeiping”. Both recosntructions based on excavations from the Gokstad find. Credit: Geir Are Johansen/Wikipedia Leading the research is archeologist and National Geographic fellow, Sarah Parcak, who has been described as a “space archaeologist” because of her groundbreaking use of satellite technology to uncover Egyptian ruins. In this latest effort, she and her team have altered their methods to uncover what appears to be evidence of Viking iron smelting.To find hidden artifacts, especially those that have been buried by some amount of dirt, using a satellite, the researchers used computer tools to help them scan images, looking for human-like angles or long straight, unnatural lines. In the case of the newly discovered Newfoundland site, called Point Rosee, the team looked for changes in the richness of the grasses that grow near the sea—those that grow over stone, or other material are less robust, and can be made out from a distant satellite. The team also used magnetometer surveys to help isolate images below the ground once they were on site. That led to an initial excavation which revealed an iron-working hearth (with 28 pounds of slag in it) and what appeared to be the remains of turf walls. Radiocarbon testing has dated the site to between 800 and 1300 AD, which would coincide with the time of the Vikings.Prior to this possible discovery, the only site ever officially designated as evidence of Norse activity in the New World was L’Anse aux Meadows, hundreds of miles north, on the tip of the same island. Archeologists do not have much to go on when attempting to prove that a settlement was made by Norsemen, rather than Basque fisherman or Native Americans—the one true hallmark of Norse travelers was the use of iron nails to build their boats, thus the discovery of an iron-smelting oven would be strong evidence of Viking activity.If additional excavation and testing indicate that the site was indeed made by Vikings, it will likely lead to changes being made to the history books—it would mean they found and settled North America five centuries before Christopher Columbus arrived. Evidence of Viking/Norse metalworking in Arctic Canada Citation: Possible second Viking site discovered in North America (2016, April 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-04-viking-site-north-america.html
Kanodia explores how ideas flow and senses come alive when a man becomes one with nature in her latest venture The Great Outdoors. Her body of work shows the close bond man has with nature. A union that helps him regain his lost innocence, enjoying a solace that can be derived from the peace and quiet of nature. There are a number of paintings set with indoors trees, foliage and birds which are skillfully integrated. ‘The conversation I hope to create in my work is a certain truth of life and on a deeper level, a well thought philosophy. I construct fantastic versions of accessible scenes, both rural and urban utopias. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Individuals may interpret my paintings in vastly disparate ways and each view will be equally logical and plausible, thought provoking and intriguing’, concedes the artist.There are several layers in Kanodia’s paintings. Her narrative uses colour, intricate patterns and humor to create alluring images. Time plays an integral part in her paintings as she has managed to capture a moment. Her work is a salient artistic combination of a still life composition with a message. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixShe is a painter of women who are on the cusp of telling their story. The woman on the bicycle opens up a pastoral picture of married life with a dog that brings a smile to the face. It is an interesting mixture of East and West, the open umbrella accentuating the lure of the woman. Still life compositions of domestic middle class interiors with a collection of flowers are an interesting oddity when put in context of soulful women in saris. It is as if two genres work successfully side by side, a surprise at every turn of the page.When: Till 20 August Where: Art Alive Gallery, S – 221, Panchsheel ParkTiming:11 am to 7 pm
Kolkata: The Kolkata Police have found a new road towards Rabindra Sarobar Metro station to divert small vehicles with a view to lower the vehicular pressure on Durgapur Bridge and Tollygunge Circular Road. According to the police, there is a road through New Alipore, which merges with Deshpran Sasmal Road. It passes through a culvert which is locally called the ‘kaathpool area.’Sources informed that Kolkata Police and the Irrigation department have paid a joint visit to the spot to check the ground reality on whether the area is wide enough for vehicular movement. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeFollowing the visit, it was found that small vehicles and two-wheelers can be diverted through this area. Only a median needs to be removed which was built in the middle portion of the culvert to prevent vehicles from using it.As per the plan, police along with Irrigation department officials and workers went there to demolish the median on Tuesday. However, the local residents objected to the move. According to them, if any heavy vehicle moves through, the culvert might not be strong enough to support the weight. Later, police informed them that only small vehicles and two-wheelers will be diverted through the area. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedLocal councillor Jui Biswas also agreed with the police. “We need to cooperate with the police. They are well aware of the area. There will be police personnel there to manage traffic,” said Jui.Later, following a chat with the police, the local residents got assurance that no heavy vehicle will ply through the area. Police have also promised to post enough personnel there.According to the officials from Kolkata Police, the road will be used to divert small vehicles. As a result, the pressure on Tollygunge Circular Road will reduce, which will also reduce the travelling time.
The Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), is geared to meet the challenge with focus on its ‘Water’ technological interventions on the ninth day of CSIR Platinum Jubilee Technofest at 36th India International Trade Fair (IITF), at Pragati Maidan in the National Capital. Theme-day seminar highlighted important aspects of water conservation and water management system in India. Scientists and researchers from the concerned laboratories of CSIR unfolded the means to generate pure and treated water for a large chunk of India’s population. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfAmitava Das, Director, CSIR-Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute (CSMCRI), said, “CSIR is focused to find out the solutions to minimize the adverse effect of water crisis in India. We are 4% of global water resource. 88% of India’s population has access to different water bodies, out of which only 32% gets treated or pure water. It has become a national challenge to provide access to treated water to a large chunk of India’s population. There is a huge gap that needs to be bridged and CSIR is dedicated in this cause.” Quoting a data he added, “The per capita usable water availability has drastically gone down from 1820 cubic meter in 2001 to 1550 cubic meter in 2011. As expected, till 2025, it will be struggling at 1340 cubic meter.” Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe ‘Water’ theme pavilion showcased advancements in water processing technology. ‘Indigenously developed Membranes’ namely Reverse Osmosis Membranes, Ultra Filtration Membrane and Hollow Fiber Membrane, have revolutionized the efforts targets towards water purification. This technology is commercialized now. The lab has provided resins to overcome the lethal effect in the Arsenic and Fluoride prone water states like West Bengal. 65 water sources have been installed in some parts of West Bengal. Nirmal Kumar Saha, Scientist, CSIR-CSMCRI, marked, “People say water is life, but we say clean water is life. CSIR has been working hard to provide safe, hygienic and affordable water to the masses.” Dr. Alok Dhawan, Director, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (IITR), said, “We have developed water filters using membrane. ‘O neer’ is a solar-operated purifier eliminating any hassle of changing filters. This is a breakthrough in providing safe and affordable water in the rural areas. CSIR is working on several pilot projects to manage water crisis in the future.”Dignitaries from other major CSIR labs also attended the seminar and discussed on waste water treatment. Working in the theme area, Mr. Rahul Kesharwani, PMPL (Vadodara) and Mr. Soumendu Porel, MD, Poral Dass Water and Effluent Control Pvt Ltd were amongst the industrial partners of CSIR who attended the seminar.The event day embraced several scientific activities for school students, science quiz and public science talk by CSIR-Center for Cellular & Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad.
Kolkata: The body of a 27-year-old youth from Belghoria was recovered from Hooghly River on early Sunday morning.He had gone to attend a picnic at Hooghly’s Balagarh and later drowned on Saturday afternoon. The incident triggered chaos in the locality after the body was recovered. Police said Jayanta Chouhan (27) along with his friends had gone to Milandwip area for a picnic on early Saturday morning. It was learnt that in the afternoon the victim along with one of his friends went for a bath in the river. According to the preliminary investigation, police suspect that the duo was competing with each other when Chouhan drowned. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe matter was immediately reported to the local police station. Cops reached the spot and divers were called in. After conducting a prolong search operation, the divers finally managed to recover the body. Police have sent the body to Imambara Sadar Hospital in Chinsurah for autopsy. As per the investigation, the police came to know that a team comprising 12 members went for the picnic on the day of Republic Day. It may be mentioned that a large number of people from various parts of the state visit the place for picnic throughout the year. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseA caretaker who looks after the picnic spot said they had taken the immediate step of reporting the matter to his family members and the police. He also said the youths should have been careful while going for a bath. A detailed probe into the incident has been initiated. According to the preliminary investigation, police suspect that there may not be any foul play behind his death. They are, however, looking into all possible reasons that might have led to the incident. The other members of the group who went to the picnic and the one who accompanied the victim for a bath are being interrogated in this connection. The investigating officers are waiting for the autopsy report of the deceased that might throw some light on the cause of the death.
Humans have garnered a symbiotic relationship with animals since always. However, our efforts to find early evidence of who we have exactly bonded with from the animal kingdom has often resulted in some predictable answers, such as cats and dogs. But this seems to no longer be the case. A new study, issued in the journal Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, on February 21, 2019, says humans also befriended red foxes, i.e. Vulpes vulpes.Comparative illustration of skulls of red fox (left) and Rüppell’s fox (right)The evidence resurfaced in the northeast part of the Iberian peninsula (Spain), where a funerary practice between the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C., revealed that humans were laid to rest alongside animals they had domesticated.Experts believe the animals were chosen due to the diet they consumed–very similar to what humans had for dinner. While plenty of dogs indeed showed up among the examined samples, some tombs attested to the presence of foxes, too.Red Fox – Vulpes vulpes. Laying down in the colorful fall vegetation. Making eye contact.In total, dog remains, domestic ungulates (hoofed mammals), foxes and humans were scrutinized for the research, which included studying the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in bone collagen. That is exactly what helped the study team compare what both the humans and animals nourished their bodies with.Juvenile red foxes are known as kits. Photo by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Headquarters – CC BY 2.0“We discovered that in some cases the dogs received a special kind of food. We believe this is linked to their function as working dogs. Besides, one of the foxes shows signs of having already been a domestic animal in those times,” said in a statement Aurora Grandal-D’Anglade from the Spanish-based University A Coruña, and one of the co-authors of the study, reports Science Daily.Among the foxes, the diet varied, the research team also revealed. For example, at Minferri, one of the two most intriguing sites with burials screened for the study, some foxes were indeed nourished with similar supplements as the dogs. Though, in other cases, it looked like foxes retained a diet more suitable to them outside the properties of people and dogs.Red foxEven greater attention was given to one fox case from Can Roqueta near Barcelona, which is the other intriguing site with burials from the region. “The case of the Can Roqueta fox is very special, because it is an old animal, with a broken leg,“ said Grandal-D’Anglade.Related Video: Mummified Cats, Scarab Beetles Discovered In Ancient Tombs Near Cairo“The fracture is still in its healing process, and shows signs of having been immobilized (cured) by humans. The feeding of this animal is very unusual, as it is more akin to a puppy dog’s. We interpret it as a domestic animal that lived for a long time with humans,” she explained.Portrait of curious red fox hiding in the bush.In specific cases from the Can Roqueta site, the study group found out that the larger dogs, as well as at least one fox buried there, were provided with foods such as cereal.This type of food would have provided the needed energy for the animal to perform more demanding tasks like helping humans with carrying goods and resources around.Some of the animals developed disorders related to the spine–a consequence of carrying heavy loads–the research further said. Canines would have fulfilled such tasks before horses were first harnessed in the region.Bronze age menMore findings indicated that Bronze Age men ate more meat than women, and that dogs probably relied on leftover human food and that they also shared a more similar diet with women and children than with men. Regardless of the details, this means the animals were likely bound to a more domestic environment with very close contact with humans.Funerary practices observed at the different burial sites also seem to have differed. The research additionally led to the discovery of a few tombs that contained animal offerings.Two such tombs revealed that “the remains of three individuals were found together with animal offerings,” according to Ariadna Nieto Espinet, an archaeologist from the University of Lleida and another of the study’s co-authors.A tame fox in Talysarn, WalesIn one of the tombs “there was the body of an old man with the remains of a whole cow and the legs of up to seven goats,” she said. “The remains of a young woman with the offering of a whole goat, two foxes and a bovine horn were also found.”Read another story from us: Ram-Headed Sphinx Unearthed in 3,000-yr-old Egyptian Carving WorkshopExperts remain uncertain why some people were privileged to be given burials that contained offerings of this type, but since animals were valued assets in these ancient societies, they were perhaps seen as a symbol of status and prestige.
Over 10,000 Iceland fans with the final ‘Viking Clap’.https://t.co/oPpQpKIzau— TheSPORTbible (@TSBible) July 4, 2016 Cinderella is dead. Iceland’s improbable run through the European Championships ended with a whimper yesterday in a sound 5 – 2 quarterfinal defeat at the the hands of tournament host France. The game was never in doubt. France led 4 – 0 at halftime, the second half was merely a formality.Throughout the course of the tournament, Iceland’s fans have been as much of the story as the team. They were happy and celebratory, in stark contrast to the roves of professional hooligans that marred the tournament with violence.Although Iceland didn’t have the magic yesterday that had been at their disposal for the entire tournament, their fans weren’t the typical faces of dejected masses following a huge loss.The fans gathered in the stadium, and on the streets to pay tribute to their national team with several last rounds of the now famous “Viking Chant.” The mood wasn’t solemn, it was celebratory. Advertisement What an unbelievable run for Iceland, and what a spectacular showing from their fans. The clique is thick in Reykavjik. The fairytale’s over for Iceland, but their chant will never be forgotten! #TheFansDaily: https://t.co/KqVouHxth8https://t.co/D8MKOWXklW— ITV (@ITV) July 4, 2016
Nick Faldo’s long past his days of winning majors, but the 6-time major champion still has plenty of game to show off at a party. At a get together at broadcasting partner Jim Nantz’s massive estate, Faldo ended a closest to the hole competition by draining a hole-in-one on a replica of Pebble Beach Par-3 7th Nantz has set up in the backyard.Faldo deserves credit for holing out, but not as much as Nantz for having a replica Pebble Beach Par 3 at the casa. Hello friends.A moment unlike any other @GolfonCBS #CasaNantz Yes, this his backyard ! #HoleInOne pic.twitter.com/7C1ghoJ5J3— Sir Nick Faldo (@NickFaldo006) February 10, 2018
Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Enroll Now for Free This hands-on workshop will give you the tools to authentically connect with an increasingly skeptical online audience. June 30, 2008 Free Workshop | August 28: Get Better Engagement and Build Trust With Customers Now The first thing to to do is walk yourself through the process of adding the responsibility of running an e-business to what you’re already doing.Who will fulfill orders?Who will reply to customer-service inquries?How will returns be handled?What about shipping?Will you accept credit cards? Do you have a merchant account to do so? If not, how will you obtain one?It might be helpful to have a friend place a mock order and invent potential scenarios a customer might present. This will give you a solid feel for the processes and procedures you need to have in place.Good luck,Lena min read
March 7, 2012 Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. Register Now » International business travel can be taxing — physically, mentally and financially. But you’re not putting demands only on yourself. You’re also asking a lot from your mobile technology.We recently returned from a three-week business trip to Delhi, India. With about 884 million cell phone users, the country is digitally advanced in some places. But in other areas, we found limited access to technology, as well as some security concerns.We tested a range of strategies for getting work done from anywhere in the world — even on a gridlocked car tour to the Taj Mahal. Here are four key lessons we learned:1. Web phone options might not be reliable. You might be tempted to try to avoid global roaming charges by using online alternatives. But there’s no simple substitute for your mobile phone and the identity that comes with it.One of the alternatives is Voice over Internet Protocol — VoIP — which routes phone calls over the Internet. VoIP applications include Microsoft-owned Skype and Sweden-based Rebtel. Although these services can work in certain circumstances, they require web or data access that may be limited or unavailable. Most VoIP options also require a second number or user name, which means clients and employees must be told to contact you using your international VoIP identity.Related: Three Low-Cost Ways to Keep Data Safe When Traveling for BusinessMore often than not, VoIP didn’t work on our trip. Calls went unanswered when company web phones could not be connected to the Internet either over cellular data connections or WiFi. Clients refused to answer calls from unknown web numbers. Often, our only choice was to make or receive calls using a known business phone number.2. In-country data roaming options generally work.For short business trips, in-country data roaming can be a convenient and potentially safer option than unfamiliar — and possibly unsecured — local wireless networks.We used San Diego-based XCom Global, which rents personal wireless hotspots and USB modems to connect to wireless data networks in 195 different countries. What you get is on-demand, portable Internet access. You can rent modems by the day with unlimited data included.Related: A Guide for Using Mobile Devices When Traveling AbroadBut remember, you’ll need to get set up for global data roaming before your trip. Check with your data provider to confirm you will have access in each country on your itinerary. If you simply assume your data plan will work, it probably won’t.3. Global cloud computing has its pros and cons. Cloud-based tools such as Google Apps worked well for us when there was reliable web connectivity. But even then, many collaborative features didn’t function. When editing documents in real time in Google Docs, for example, we noticed that our changes weren’t being saved, some updates didn’t go through, and keeping track of who had made changes to a file was difficult.Consider bringing along computer-installed versions of all your work apps and documents, and know how to sync them with their web-based counterparts. For offline work, you will need to manage multiple versions of documents and distribute them to your team when web access is available.Related: Three Tips for Keeping Business Data Safe on Personal Mobile DevicesBecause collaborative features in our cloud-based tools didn’t work, we found desktop sharing apps such as GoToMeeting, Adobe ConnectNow, TeamViewer and Join.me especially useful.4. Security must be a priority.Depending on your travel destination, local Wi-Fi and shared networks may be risky. Generally, you should try to avoid unsecured networks in cafés and hotels where hackers could gain access to your company data.If you do connect to a public network, access only your basic accounts, such as email, and avoid using the same password for different accounts. Don’t handle banking matters, pay credit cards or interact with other web-based financial tools over public networks. Instead, rely on a spouse or trusted colleague at home if you need access to critical information. Even then, try to call from a secure cell phone to tell them what you need. When you return home, it’s a good idea to change all of your passwords in case hackers got access to any of them.Bottom line: Once you get the hang of how web and phone tools work internationally, you can travel abroad with much less worry about technology impeding or endangering your work. Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. 4 min read Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global
Hear from business owners and CEOs who went through a crippling business problem and came out the other side bigger and stronger. November 15, 2014 Listen Now Problem Solvers with Jason Feifer While there’s an understandable excitement that surrounds the launch of new video game hardware, the real fun usually doesn’t start until a year or so after the systems hit store shelves.Last year’s launch of the Xbox One and PlayStation 4, if we’re being honest with ourselves, didn’t have an especially stellar lineup of games. But the story’s much different as 2014’s holiday season gets underway—and that’s good news for players.Whether it’s good news for game publishers, though, is a different question.While sales of new video game hardware from Microsoft and Sony are outpacing those of their predecessors, game software sales haven’t been keeping up. In the first three quarters of the year, software sales were almost 20 percent off of the 2013 totals in that same time frame.And there’s some concern about whether the industry’s go-to big guns will be able to make up that ground.”Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare,” for example, is a perennial best-seller in the industry, but some analysts are slightly bearing on this year’s installment—called “Advanced Warfare.”Colin Sebastian of R.W. Baird & Co predicts the game will sell between 18-20 million units—saying he expects it to ultimately be flat to down 10 percent compared with last year’s “Call of Duty: Ghosts.”Sterne Agee analyst Arvind Bhatia says he expects fourth quarter shipments of the game to be down 15 percent versus 2013.Activision, for its part, says its own tracking shows purchase intent well above what it saw last year.Part of the reason for that is as players save up to purchase new consoles, they hold back on buying games for their Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 (which is part of the reason game sales are down this year). “Console transitions are hard to manage for companies like ours,” says Eric Hirshberg, CEO of Activision Publishing. “But if you have to have a set of problems, I’d rather have those problems be that adoption is going faster than expected and (older) software is dropping faster than expected, because that points to the future.”While both the Xbox One and PS4 are selling well compared with their predecessors, Sony’s console has pulled ahead. Microsoft, though, has slashed the price on the Xbox One this holiday season to $350, a $150 drop since the system’s launch last November—and one that undercuts the PS4 by $50.To further increase interest in the system, Microsoft is offering “Halo: The Master Chief Collection,” a compilation of four “Halo” games, including versions of “Halo: Combat Evolved” and “Halo 2″ with updated graphics and remastered interstitial cut scenes.”Halo” isn’t the only classic game getting a facelift for the next generation. Sony remastered 2013’s “Tomb Raider” and “The Last of Us” earlier this year. And Take-Two Interactive Software will release an updated version of “Grand Theft Auto V” for both systems on Nov. 18.Other titles to look for this holiday include Ubisoft’s “Assassin’s Creed: Unity” and “Far Cry 4,” “Super Smash Bros. Wii U” from Nintendo and Electronic Arts’ “Dragon Age Inquistion”. And previously released games, like “Destiny,” from the creators of “Halo,” are also expected to be hot sellers.It’s a rich lineup—and it’s one that has publishing executives excited about the months to come.”It looks very sound so far,” says Strauss Zelnick, CEO of Take-Two Interactive. “So far everything is performing in line or better than expectations. I think the market is in a good place. … I think the wind is at our back as an industry. We, and a couple key competitors, are positioned very, very well.” 4 min read This story originally appeared on CNBC
Specialty pulp and paper chemicals are the raw materials used to produce specialty paper. These are the integral part of manufacturing process of paper and reduces the consumption of water and energy. It also improves the optical and functional properties of paper such as color, texture, brightness, strength, printing ability, and others during the paper manufacturing process. Some of the specialty paper chemicals include sodium hydrosulfite, hydrogen peroxide, and chlorine, which are used as bleaching agents; sodium silicate, enzymes and various surfactants used in the de-inking process; and alkyl ketene dimer and alkenyl succinic anhydride used for sizing. Specialty paper has wide applications, which includes printing, labeling, and packaging in various sectors such as paper, food, textile, retail, and packaging.The global specialty pulp and paper chemicals market was valued at 15,568 million in 2016, and is projected to reach 22,829 million by 2023, registering a CAGR of 5.6% from 2017 to 2023. In 2016, the functional chemicals segment accounted for approximately one-fifth share of the global market, in terms of value.Download Report Sample @ https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/request-sample/4586The recycling of paper has gained considerable importance in the global paper industry over the past decade. The increased use of recycled paper results in an increased requirement for specialty pulp and paper chemicals. In addition, the demand for functional chemicals in various applications such as packaging, printing, and decoration is on an increase, thus driving the specialty pulp and paper chemicals market.The functional chemicals segment of specialty chemicals comprises of different types of dry-strength additives, wet-strength resins, fluorescent whitening, and sizing agents. The wide applications of specialty paper in different sectors demand different characteristics of papers related to its color, brightness, sizing, texture, and others. The use of functional chemicals has increased to meet the needs of the paper manufacturing industry, which contributes to the growth of the specialty pulp and paper chemicals market.Get a purchase enquiry @ https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/purchase-enquiry/4586However, due to the adverse effects of chemicals on environment and human health stringent regulations are drafted over their usage in manufacturing of specialty paper, which hampers the growth of the market. In addition, fluctuations in the price of raw materials and chemicals required for paper production is expected to restrict the growth of the specialty pulp and paper chemicals market. Nevertheless, specialty pulp and paper chemicals offer benefits such as improvement in productivity, reduced water, raw materials, and energy consumption that help control the overall cost of operation providing lucrative opportunities for the market in the upcoming years. Moreover, the use of new enzymes in the production of specialty papers is also anticipated to provide great opportunities for the specialty pulp and paper chemicals market during the forecast period.In terms of value, Asia-Pacific and LAMEA collectively contributed more than half of the share in the global market in 2016.Leading industry players:AkzoNobel N.V., Ashland Inc., Buckman Laboratories International, Inc., BASF SE, Buckman Laboratories International, Inc., Kemira Oyj, SNF Floerger, The Dow Chemical Company, Evonik Industries AG, Nalco Holding Company and Shell Chemicals.About Us:Allied Market Research (AMR) is a full-service market research and business consulting wing of Allied Analytics LLP based in Portland, Oregon. Allied Market Research provides global enterprises as well as medium and small businesses with unmatched quality of “Market Research Reports” and “Business Intelligence Solutions.” AMR has a targeted view to provide business insights and consulting to assist its clients to make strategic business decisions and achieve sustainable growth in their respective market domain.We are in professional corporate relations with various companies and this helps us in digging out market data that helps us generate accurate research data tables and confirms utmost accuracy in our market forecasting. Each and every data presented in the reports published by us is extracted through primary interviews with top officials from leading companies of domain concerned. Our secondary data procurement methodology includes deep online and offline research and discussion with knowledgeable professionals and analysts in the industry.Contact:David Correa5933 NE Win Sivers Drive#205, Portland, OR 97220United StatesUSA/Canada (Toll Free):+1-800-792-5285, +1-503-894-6022, +1-503-446-1141UK: +44-845-528-1300Hong Kong: +852-301-84916India (Pune): +91-20-66346060Fax: +1(855)email@example.comWeb: https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com
Parking Management, Global Parking Management, Parking Management Market, Parking Management Market Size, Parking Management Industry, Parking Management Market share, Parking Management Sales, Parking Management Industry Analysis, Parking Management Industry Demand, Parking Management Industry Trends, Parking Management Market Analysis, Parking Management Market Data, Parking Management Market Demand, Parking Management Market Forecasts, Parking Management Market growth, Parking Management Market Outlook, Parking Management Market Overview, Parking Management Market Trends, Analysis, Trends, Research Report, Size, Share, Strategy, Survey, Demand, Scenario, Forecast, Development, Business, Growth, Outlook, Industry analysis, Overview, Survey report, Business analysis, strategies, Research The report is a comprehensive exploration of Parking Management Market offering growth rates, size of the industry, competitive landscape information, factors to the contributing growth of the Parking Management Market and more.The global parking management market is expected to grow to US$ 58.5 Bn by 2027 from US$ 37.6 Bn in 2017. As per ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers Associations), parking management refers to the adoption of various strategies and subsequently technology-enabled solutions that facilitate in efficient use of parking resources. Further, the effective implementation of the strategy results in the reduced number of parking space required by the facility based on the strategy adopted thereby providing long-term economic, social, and environmental benefits to the end-user. The parking management market is expected to witness a CAGR growth rate of 4.8% from 2019 to 2027.Request for a sample copy of this report @ https://www.bigmarketresearch.com/request-sample/3206910?utm_source=SHASHI-HTNThe parking management market is a highly fragmented market with the presence of a significant number of players in each country coupled with multiple players with small and regional presence. The commonly available parking solutions in parking management market are access control, ANPR, parking security & surveillance, parking reservation and valet parking, and fee enforcement among other parking management solutions. Moreover, the increasing number of registered passenger vehicles along with limited parking space availability across important cities has led to the surge in demand for efficient parking management market in the past few years. Subsequently, the leading end-users of parking management such as airports, government & municipals, universities, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, and commercial complexes among other end-users have witnessed a significant increase the parking management market in the coming years. Also, among on-street parking especially in metro cities has attributed in a considerable collection of revenue generated through parking violation and parking fees which is effectively utilized for providing essential utilities to the public. Factors such as increasing rate of infrastructure development coupled with the growing purchasing power of the individuals have significantly increased the demand for improving the vehicle mobility at major popular commercial hubs in developed as well as developing countries.Geographically, the parking management market is majorly dominated by developed regions such as Europe and North America owing to a high number of registered vehicle per household capita and the amount of regulated parking space currently available in the areas. Moreover, the growing emphasis towards facilitating seamless mobility among densely populated cities has further boosted the demand for efficient parking management in the developed regions. Currently, there are various leading players such as APCOA, Indigo-Infra Park, Passport, Siemens, Skidata and SP Plus among other leading companies have leading market position in parking management market among different countries across European and North America regions. However, the presence of the substantial number of local and regional players with a minimal scope of business has resulted in the highly fragmented parking management market even in developed economies. Among developing countries, the availability of a substantial number of unregulated parking space and free parking has a profound influence over the parking management market growth and the market is majorly driven by off-street parking space at commercial areas and government & municipal locations. However, countries such as Japan and China owing to stringent government guidelines towards parking space have resulted in minimum parking space available for parking management solutions.The primary factor influencing the growth of off-street parking in the parking management market among developed countries and few financially emerging countries is the rapid growth of smart cities. The rising smart city initiatives are driving the deployment of sensors and related technologies for various applications which includes parking. Owing to this, several parking management technology developers as well as numerous parking management service providers are developing and offering advanced technologies to facilitate the municipalities and private spaces to optimize unutilized and unorganized parking areas. The advantages of technologically enhanced parking technologies are increasing the interest among various municipalities, commercial building zones, industrial building management as well as residential sector, thereby, rising the market for off-street parking management in the current market scenario.The future of off-street parking management is anticipated be prominent attributing to two significant facts; increase in partnerships among the technology developers and parking management service providers as well as municipalities; and reduction in the cost of the technologies. Some of the prominent off-street parking management companies across the globe include; Amano McGann, TIBA Parking, Gemini Parking Solutions, and Duncan Solutions among others.Request for a Discount Sample @ https://www.bigmarketresearch.com/request-for-discount/3206910?utm_source=SHASHI-HTNTable of content: INTRODUCTION 171.1 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 171.2 THE INSIGHT PARTNERS RESEARCH REPORT GUIDANCE 17KEY TAKEAWAYS 18PARKING MANAGEMENT MARKET LANDSCAPE 203.1 MARKET OVERVIEW 203.2 MARKET SEGMENTATION 213.2.1 Global Parking Management Market – By Parking Site 223.2.2 Global Parking Management Market – By Solutions 223.2.3 Global Parking Management Market – By Services 233.2.4 Global Parking Management Market – By Deployment Type 233.2.5 Global Parking Management Market – By Geography 233.3 PEST ANALYSIS 243.3.1 North America – PEST Analysis 243.3.2 Europe – PEST Analysis 263.3.3 Asia Pacific – PEST Analysis 283.3.4 Middle East and Africa – PEST Analysis 303.3.5 South America – PEST Analysis 32PARKING MANAGEMENT MARKET – KEY INDUSTRY DYNAMICS 344.1 KEY MARKET DRIVERS 344.1.1 Significant Rise in Number of Vehicles on Road 344.1.2 Rising Adoption of Smart Technologies in Parking Management 354.2 KEY MARKET RESTRAINTS 354.2.1 Limited Awareness among the Consumers in Developing Countries 354.3 KEY MARKET OPPORTUNITIES 364.3.1 Increasing Partnerships and Mergers to Stimulate the Parking Management in Urban Areas 364.4 FUTURE TRENDS 364.4.1 Simplification of Technologies and Reduction in Cost of the Systems 364.5 IMPACT ANALYSIS OF DRIVERS AND RESTRAINTS 37Access Full Summery @ https://www.bigmarketresearch.com/report/3206910/parking-management-market-to-2027?utm_source=SHASHIAbout Us:Big Market Research has a range of research reports from various publishers across the world. Our database of reports of various market categories and sub-categories would help to find the exact report you may be looking for.We are instrumental in providing quantitative and qualitative insights on your area of interest by bringing reports from various publishers at one place to save your time and money. A lot of organizations across the world are gaining profits and great benefits from information gained through reports sourced by us.Contact Us:Mr. Abhishek Paliwal5933 Ne Win Sivers Drive, #205, Portland,Or 97220 United StatesCall Answer Direct:+1-971-202-1575Call Answer Toll Free:+1-800-910-6452Email firstname.lastname@example.org
Google terminates Google Inbox service by Martin Brinkmann on September 13, 2018 in Email – Last Update: September 13, 2018 – 17 commentsGoogle Gmail product manager Matthew Izatt revealed today on the official The Keyword blog of the company that Google Inbox is being retired in 2019.Google launched Inbox in 2014 as an alternative to the company’s popular Gmail web service. Back then, many assumed that Google would move all Gmail users to Google Inbox.Inbox was an experimental playground of sorts that Gmail users could switch to (and from) easily as it used the same account and data sources as Gmail.Google Inbox was launched as an invite-only service in 2014. One of the main ideas behind Inbox was that it was designed to make things easier for users by sorting emails into categories and user defined bundles (which work similarly to filters for the most part).When I reviewed Inbox back in 2014 I quickly realized that the service was not something that I wanted to use. It started with a single compose line for heaven’s sake.Other points of criticism were that it was Google Chrome exclusive in the beginning, that it did not display a lot of emails at once on the screen even on the desktop, that it hid all labels by default, and that you could not disable notifications in the web interface.Firefox users and users of other browsers could change the user agent of the web browser to access Inbox.In 2015, Google introduced a new feature in Inbox that predicted replies by analyzing emails. Hailed as a way to speed up replies, it was merely suggesting short answers that anyone could type in a matter of seconds manually as well.For me, Inbox was an attempt to simplify email and while it certainly had some interesting features, Inbox was too simplified and not really usable because of that.Things went quiet afterward and Google neglected Inbox for the most part. The company launched a new interface for Gmail this year which introduced several Inbox features.Google revealed that it will terminate Google Inbox in March 2019. Users who have used Inbox are asked to switch back to Gmail. Google published a support page that it says should help users transition from Inbox to Gmail.The page suggests alternatives for the Inbox features pin, bundles and reminders. For pinning emails, Google suggests to either use stars or custom labels, and use the search tool to find starred or labeled messages.For bundles, Google suggests to use filters and labels, and for reminders Google Tasks or Google Keep.Closing WordsI know quite a few Gmail users who switched to Inbox when it was released. These users will have to switch back; good news is that the data itself remains the same and that users don’t have to do any importing or exporting.Bad news is that some features are not available on Gmail and that Inbox users may have to use suggested alternatives, e.g. labels or filters, or stop using certain features as they are not available.Now You: Are you affected by the termination of Google Inbox?SummaryArticle NameGoogle terminates Google Inbox serviceDescriptionGoogle Gmail product manager Matthew Izatt revealed today on the official The Keyword blog of the company that Google Inbox is being retired in 2019.Author Martin BrinkmannPublisher Ghacks Technology NewsLogo Advertisement
Get the biggest Daily stories by emailSubscribeSee our privacy noticeThank you for subscribingSee our privacy noticeCould not subscribe, try again laterInvalid EmailIt has now been a year since changes were made to the UK driving test – but have they made the test more difficult? The principle of the driving test has remained the same for more than 80 years, since the Road Traffic Act of 1934 made it compulsory for all new drivers to complete a test before they could be unleashed onto the roads. But the practical details have frequently adapted to the changing nature of hazards on the roads. Last December, there were a number of changes to the practical side of the driving test in the UK. The requirement to complete a three-point turn or reverse around a corner were taken out, while driving with a SatNav was introduced and the test itself was also made longer. But have the changes made the test any harder? “Learner drivers will always be stressed. The driving test is one of the important things that you do in life, and as soon as you mention ‘test’ it gets people’s heart rate pumping and they feel nervous about it. “There’s a little more to do now, but it is not really any harder. I do see quite a lot of people passing the first time, but probably the average person passes on either their second or third go because it’s a matter of overcoming the nerves.” DVLA figures show that most people fail their driving test at least once. Read More£10 MILLION blitz to repair Stoke-on-Trent and Staffordshire’s pothole-riddled roads revealed Over 2017/18, 39.9 per cent of people who took their test for the first time at Cobridge passed, while 41.1 per cent of drivers sailed through at the first go at Newcastle. The figures also show that men are more likely to pass at the first attempt – 43.8 per cent of men sitting their test at Cobridge were successful at the first attempt, compared to 36.2 per cent of women. At Newcastle 44.8 per cent of men passed first time, compared to 37.4 per cent of lady drivers. Want to tell us about something going on where you live? Let us know – Tweet us @SOTLive or message us on our Facebook page. And if you have pictures to share, tag us on Instagram at StokeonTrentLive. (Image: iStockphoto) Nationally, the overall average pass rate has dropped below 46 per cent for the first time since 2010. However, this year’s figure of 45.5 per cent is not far below the 2017 average of 46.8 per cent – and in fact over the last 10 years, the pass rate has remained fairly constant. Despite the changes, driving instructor Ken Gratton, from Stoke Driver Training, said: “I don’t think it’s any harder, I just think it’s a bit more up to date. “It looks at use of SatNav and technology. Read MoreThe horrifying motorway crash video police want drivers to see to deter drink-driving this Christmas “It has taken out things like three-point turn and reversing around a corner, but it is more difficult to find somewhere to do those sort of things now because there are so many parked cars around. They still have to be able to reverse into a parking bay. “From what I’ve seen I don’t think the pass rate has gone down.” Tony Vickerman, of Burslem-based Superb Driver Training, said: “I wouldn’t say it was any more difficult, they have just added a few bits, like SatNav. For part of the test, instead of the examiner telling them where to do, they will follow the SatNav. (Image: PA) According to figures held by the Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency, nationally the pass rate has remained steady since last December, at 45.5 per cent. Figures show, at the test centre at Cobridge last December, when the changes were made, 82 drivers out of 197 passed the test – a success rate of 41.6 per cent. However in the first three months of this year, only 37.5 per cent of the 1,400 people who took their test at Cobridge passed (525). Read MoreThe changes made to the UK driving test that you should be aware of Over the same period in 2017 there was a much higher pass rate of 43.2 per cent, when 813 of 1,880 new drivers passed their test. At neighbouring Newcastle the pass rate was also down on the previous year. Between January and March of 2018, the pass rate was 42.1 per cent, while the previous year it was only slightly higher, 43.4 per cent.